GAP: Genre, Audience, Purpose…
What genre or format is this?
It’s a letter.
What do you need to remember about t

his genre?
Endings and beginnings, Dear Madam = yours faithfully, Dear Mr Smith = yours sincerely. The layout of a letter, address, date etc.
What is your intended audience?
Your Member of Parliament, a politician.
What sort of tone is appropriate for the audience?

What is the purpose?
To argue that the way dairy cows are kept is cruel.
What do you want?
A change in the law, to make dairy farming less cruel to cows.

Make a plan
Now that you have the information you need to include in your letter, you need to make a plan.
1. Introduction – why are you writing?
2. Content – the evidence for your argument. This is the information from the leaflet. Remember that it needs to be in your own words.
3. Conclusion – what you want to happen?

 Does it have a tone appropriate for the audience?
 Have you argued your point?
 Have you given evidence to back up your point?
 Have you worded your point in such a way that your audience will be convinced by what you say?
 Put in paragraphing.
 Correct spelling mistakes.
 Make corrections to the punctuation.
 Go through and make corrections to the sample answer and then compare it with the model answer.
 Give yourself 20 minutes.


 The plan - set out the key areas you intend to cover, eg audience, purpose and tone.
 The structure - write down and organise the main points you want to cover, eg introduction, the purpose, the presentation, and the conclusion.
 Fluency - write in a clear way using good punctuation and varied vocabulary

The plan
Before you write anything, you must write a plan setting out the key areas you intend to cover. It doesn't matter if the plan is short. Take a look at this example - we've called the headteacher Mrs Seddon.
• What is the intended audience for this letter?
People who used to go to the school who will remember the headteacher Mrs Seddon - ex-pupils and staff.
• What is the purpose of the letter?
To tell ex-pupils and staff that Mrs Seddon is retiring and to inform them that there is going to be a party, a collection for a leaving present etc.
• What sort of tone should I use?
Formal, but friendly. It should also be inviting.
The structure
To work out the structure of the letter, write down the main points you want to make. Try using headings for the different paragraphs of your letter. This will give a structure to the letter and keep it organised.
1. Introduction - explain who you are and why you are writing, eg Chair of the Friends of Gnashley High School/Mrs Seddon is retiring.
2. Purpose - explain that there is a party and include details of when/where.
3. Presentation - give information about the leaving present for Mrs Seddon.
4. Donations - give details about where people can send contributions for the present.
5. Conclusion - summarise the main details of the letter.
Now you have a plan and structure, you can move on.

 Fluent and clear paragraphs are very important in the marking schemes and can gain you additional marks in your exam. To write in a fluent and clear way, you need to vary your writing style.
 Try to avoid a mechanical style of writing
• "The party will be on Wednesday night."
• "It will start at 9pm. It will finish at 12pm."
 Vary the start of your sentences
• "The party will take place at…"
• "The celebrations start at 9pm…"
 Make your points clearly
• Always stick to the point of the question
• Make sure you answer it correctly
Getting a higher grade
If you follow all of the previous advice, then you should have the following:
• a plan
• the purpose and audience
• a good structure made up of several main points
• varied sentence beginnings
• technical accuracy (punctuation and spelling)
To get a high grade, you'll need to use the following techniques:
• Tense - a persuasive letter is normally written in the simple present tense, eg "As Chair of the Friends of Gnashley High School, I am writing to ask you…"
• Linking language - use logical conjunctions such as therefore, furthermore, because etc.
• Clarity - repeat or reiterate your main point in the concluding paragraph, eg "Do try to come to this event and do try to see fit to contribute to this worthwhile cause."
• Audience - show you are aware of the audience. Include details that are familiar to the reader. Share some memories of events and people. Mention how the school has changed over the years. Begin the letter with the recipient's name and title. Attempt to crack some jokes that they might appreciate. Be a little less formal than in other types of formal writing.
• Structure - begin with a position, then preview the points that are going to follow. In your first paragraph, outline what you are going to say in your letter. In the body of the letter, explain your reasons for writing. In your conclusion, you should try to summarise what you have said.


Preparing to write
First of all, check:
• What sort of genre or format do you need to use?
• What is your intended audience?
• What is the purpose of this writing?
Here's a good plan that one student made:
Genre → information pack → clear and easy to read
Audience → students in my school → tone needs to be suitable
Purpose → offer advice → do NOT persuade or argue

The plan
You have a list of things that you need to include. That’s a good starting point for your plan.
• Introduce the information pack.
• Introduce the subject, eg. 'The type of event that will work well', give some ideas, conclude and move on to the next point
• Expand on the subject:
o planning the event, eg how the event will be organised
o targets for the event, eg how many people you are expecting
o problems, eg. explain what problems might come up and how you will tackle them
• Conclude the whole piece of writing.

Be the examiner!
Examiners have very detailed notes on what should have been written. Knowing what the examiner is looking for will help you to see what you should be writing.
Here are some criteria that the examiner looks for in text that is writen to advise:
• Using an appropriate format, matching the task.
• Using an appropriate tone, matching the audience.
• Uses appropriate and interesting vocabulary.
• Successful advice.
• Level of structure and fluency.
Place yourself in the examiner's shoes and try to mark the three sample answers on the previous page in the activity below. It might help to print out the sample answers so you can have them in front of you!**

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